Artist Vladimir Tatlin

Ungenannte Einzelne

Title The Monument to the Third International

Individuelle Momente von Massenhysterie

Vladimir Tatlin "Model for a Monument to the Third International"

„What happened from the social aspect in 1917 was realized in our work as pictorial artists in 1914, when ‚materials, volume and construction’ were accepted as our foundations (...) We declare our distrust of the eye, and place our sensual impressions under control (...) The result of this (...) stimulate us to inventions on our work of creating a new world (...)“ .

This quote is taken from the text “The work ahead of us”, which Tatlin published in the magazine “The Art of the Commune”, which was published by the IZO, the department of Fine Art in the Commissariat of Enlightenment. The reason for the text was the presentation of his Model for the Monument to the Third International, which was realized throughout 1919 and publicly shown in Tatlin’s studio in Petrograd in November to than be transported to Moscow to become part of the revolutionary festivities. Tatlin was a frequent contributer to public discussion, he wrote numerous letters to administrative offices concerned with the stele industry, museum building, public architecture and journals like “The Art of the Commune” which had been established in 1918 already to communicate the developments of the arts and to build a broad basis for the inclusion of artistic into general production. Tatlin here had a central function for a number of reason, as the state commissioned builder of the monument to the revolution, as an art educator, as the head of IZO Moscow and also as a central figure of the pre-revolutionary art movements of the 1910s.

Vladimir Tatlin, who had already been actively involved in the Russian ‘futurist’ movement of the 1910s as an artist as well as an organizer of exhibitions, became also one of the predominant proponents of the constructivist, or more precisely of the material culture, programmatic of the 1920s. His approach had been more materially oriented than most of those of his fellow futurists and it in the 1920s was more consequentially materialist than most of his constructivist comrades.

His monument is formulated as an attempt to put “art into life” (Tatlin). Although it was commissioned by the Russian State in 1918 as a monument to the revolution, Tatlin decided against a commemorational structure of glorification, he decided against representation and consolidation. The revolution he was honoring consisted of the presence of its future in its presence. His monument was designed as an utilitarian building transcending not only the industrial standards of the late 1910s - and especially those of post-revolutionary Russia - but also the model of their national organizations, hosting the prospective world-government, the Comintern, its different departments, as well as a central agency for press and propaganda and spaces for public involvement. The three spatial components suspended in the tower’s spiralling grid, from bottom to top a square a rectangular, and a hemispherical space, were thought to be themselves mobile, enforcing as well as embodying the active structures of the fully developed ‘material culture’ Tatlin envisaged. Tatlin’s monument anticipated future revolutions, not primarily in the arts but more so in politics as well as in production. Art here was a lever to actualize the potential of man, to perform politics, which would turn “art into life”(Tatlin).

In 1924 Leon Trotzky, who was very sceptical of the construction of the tower – of the mobility of its steel grid – wrote in “Literature and Revolution”: “That Tatlin despised the national style, allegorical sculpture, ornamentation, decoration and all that bauble and has tried to let his project be guided by the correct and constructive utilization of material – in that he is absolutely right. (…) It is not yet proven if Tatlin was right in his won invention: the rotating cube, the pyramid and the hemisphere of glass.”

The plan for the Monument to the Third International was ‘projective’ because it could not be realized at that time, due to the material scarcity of the Russian economy of the early 20s: metal was rare in Russia. Tatlin - as Alexander Rodchenko – built his ‘metal works’ in wood, which they painted in silver – they were hoping for a not yet existing industry.
The mechanical construction Tatlin’s model envisaged was not realizable in 1919. Tatlin worked in collaboration with engineers, metal workers and architects to find a solution for the extremely variable structure of the monument. The model – which was never realized because the it was built for a society which never transformed into its own ideal – was to mimic the construction of the actual tower. The material had to be highly flexible, as the monument was supposed to be in constant movement. The monument’s realization was planned to be itself the realization of a general artistic production. So the banners presented with the model said” Steel workers of the world unite to build this monument.” The monument was – so to say – under collective construction and would only have been realized if Tatlin’s slogan “art into life” would have been realized. Ivan Punin, who reported on the monument’s becoming in mid 1919, tried to capture its pre-occupation with its perceiver: “Least of all one should stand still or sit down on it, you must be mechanically taken up, down, carried away against your will, in front of you must flash the powerful laconic phrase of the orator-agitator”.

Fall der Berliner Mauer

Die Berliner Mauer, auch als „antifaschistischer Schutzwall“ bezeichnet, war Teil der innerdeutschen Grenze und trennte vom 13. August 1961 bis zum 9. November 1989 West-Berlin vom Ostteil der Stadt und dem sie umgebenden Gebiet der DDR.

Nach dem Ende des Zweiten Weltkrieges 1945 wurde Deutschland auf Beschluss der Jaltakonferenz in vier Besatzungszonen aufgeteilt, die von den Alliierten Staaten USA, Sowjetunion, Großbritannien und Frankreich kontrolliert und verwaltet wurden. Analog wurde Berlin als ehemalige Hauptstadt des Deutschen Reiches in vier Sektoren geteilt.

Die Berliner Mauer fiel in der Nacht von Donnerstag, dem 9. November, auf Freitag, den 10. November 1989, nach mehr als 28 Jahren Bestand.

The Beatles - Hysteria

Vom 18. August bis 16. Oktober spielen die "Beatles" im Hamburger "Indra" und "Kaiserkeller". Im Dezember zweites Gastspiel in Hamburg. Besetzung: Paul, John, George, Pete Best und Stuart Sutcliffe. Am 27. Dezember erfolgreicher Auftritt im "Welcome Home Concert" in der Stadthalle des Liverpooler Vorortes Litherland.

Verpflichtung im Liverpooler Casbah Club. Im März Übersiedlung in den Cavern Club. Von April bis Juli Gastspiel im Hamburger "Top Ten". Erste Schallplattenproduktion als Begleitgruppe des Sängers Tony Sheridan unter der Leitung des Hamburger Komponisten Bert Kaempfert. Stuart Sutcliffe verlässt die "Beatles".
Ab Juli erneut Auftritte im Cavern Club, wo am 9. November Brian Epstein erstmals die "Beatles" hört.
Am 3. Dezember wird der Vertrag über ihre zukünftige Zusammenarbeit unterzeichnet.

Brian Epstein verpflichtet am 1. Mai den Disc Jockey Tony Barrow als Pressereferent für sein Büro.
Im Juni Gründung der Firma NEMS Enterprises Ltd, geleitet von Brian Epstein.
Juli: Unterzeichnung des ersten Plattevertrages zwischen den "Beatles" und dem Schallplattenkonzern EMI.
August: Ringo Starr tritt für Pete Best den "Beatles" bei.
11. September Aufnahme der ersten "Beatles" Single in den EMI Studios der Abby Road.
5. Oktober "Love Me Do" und "P.S. I Love You" erscheinen als Single und erreichen im November den 17. Platz in der englischen Hitparade. 18. bis 31. Dezember Letztes Hamburg Gastspiel im Star Club.

1963: Januar zweite Schottland Tournee. Zweite Single "Please Please Me". Februar erste England Tournee mit Helen Shapiro, Danny Williams und Kenny Lynch. März zweite England Tournee mit Tommy Roe und Chris Montez. Mai dritte England Tournee mit Roy Orbison und Gerry and the Pacemakers.
Am 3. August spielen die "Beatles" zum letzten Mal im Cavern Club, es ist dort ihr 272er Auftritt.
15. September Konzert in der Royal Albert Hall London. "She Loves You" hält in Großbritannien vier Wochen lang die Spitze der Hitparaden.
13. Oktober Auftritt im Londoner Palladium.
24. bis 29. Oktober Tournee durch Schweden.
4. November Auftritt bei der Royal Variety Performance. Die englische Königsfamilie ist anwesend. Aus John Lennons Ansage: "Die Herrschaften auf den billigeren Plätzen wollen bitte klatschen, die anderen klimpern ganz einfach mit ihren Juwelen".